Sell My Structured Settlement in Wyoming
Wyoming Law for Selling a Structured Settlement
CHAPTER 16 - JUDGMENTS GENERALLY
ARTICLE 1 - IN GENERAL
1-16-101. Rights of minors reserved.
It is not necessary to reserve in a judgment or order the right of a minor to show cause why such order or judgment should be set aside after he attains the age of majority, but in any case in which such reservation would have been proper, the minor may show cause against such order or judgment within one (1) year after arriving at the age of majority.
1-16-102. Interest on judgments.
(a) Except as provided in subsections (b) and (c) of this section, all decrees and judgments for the payment of money shall bear interest at ten percent (10%) per year from the date of rendition until paid.
(b) If the decree or judgment is founded on a contract and all parties to the contract agreed to interest at a certain rate, the rate of interest on the decree or judgment shall correspond to the terms of the contract.
(c) A periodic payment or installment for child support or maintenance which is unpaid on the date due and which on or after July 1, 1990, becomes a judgment by operation of law pursuant to W.S. 14-2-204 shall not bear interest.
1-16-103. Penalty assessed on unpaid judgment by operation of law.
(a) As used in this section "judgment by operation of law" means a periodic payment or installment for child support or maintenance which is unpaid on the date due and which has become a judgment by operation of law pursuant to W.S. 14-2-204.
(b) Any judgment by operation of law which is not paid within thirty-two (32) calendar days from the date the judgment by operation of law arises is subject to an automatic late payment penalty in an amount equal to ten percent (10%) of the amount of the judgment by operation of law.
(c) In order to recover penalties assessed under subsection (b) of this section, the obligee shall file with the clerk of court a sworn affidavit setting forth the payment history resulting in assessment of any penalty and a computation of all penalties claimed to be due and owing. It shall not be the responsibility of the clerk to compute the amount of the penalties due and owing. If the obligor disputes the payment history or penalty computation as stated in the obligee's sworn affidavit, the obligor shall file with the clerk of court a written request for a hearing within ten (10) days after seizure of his property under execution.
(d) This section shall apply only to judgments by operation of law arising on or after July 1, 1990.
ARTICLE 2 - JUDGMENTS BY CONFESSION
1-16-201. Right to confess judgment.
A person indebted or against whom a cause of action exists, may personally appear in a court of competent jurisdiction and with the assent of the creditor or person having such cause of action, confess judgment, whereupon judgment shall be entered accordingly.
1-16-202. Warrant of attorney to be produced.
An attorney who confesses judgment in any case, at the time of making the confession shall produce the warrant of attorney for making the same to the court. The original or a copy of the warrant shall be filed with the clerk of the court.
1-16-203. Repealed by Laws 1988, ch. 37, 3.
ARTICLE 3 - RECORDING AND INDEXING OF JUDGMENTS; RELEASE
1-16-301. Judgments and orders to be entered in journal; recordation where real property affected.
(a) Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, all judgments and orders must be entered in the journal of the court and specify clearly the relief granted or order made in the action. When a judgment or order is made determining any matter affecting the title to real property, a certified copy of the judgment or order shall be recorded in the office of the county clerk of the county in which the property is situate.
(b) No entry will be made in the journal relating to a judgment by operation of law arising under W.S. 14-2-204.
1-16-302. Record; requirement.
The clerk shall make a complete record of every cause as soon as it is finally determined, unless such record or part thereof is waived.
1-16-303. Record; contents.
The record shall contain the complaint, the process, the return, pleadings subsequent thereto and all material acts and proceedings of the court. If the items of an account or the copies of papers attached to the pleadings are voluminous, the court may order the record to be made by abbreviating the same or inserting a pertinent description thereof, or by omitting them entirely. Evidence will not be recorded.
1-16-304. Transcription into new volume.
A court by order on the journal, may direct its clerk to transcribe any book in his office into a new volume, and the transcripts made are as valid as the original.
1-16-305. When complete record not required.
(a) W.S. 1-16-302 does not apply:
(i) In criminal prosecutions when the indictment has been quashed, or when the district attorney has entered a nolle prosequi on the indictment;
(ii) When the action has been dismissed without prejudice to a future action, as provided in W.S. 1-16-306;
(iii) In all actions in which, in open court, at the term at which the final order or judgment is made, both parties agree that no record shall be made.
1-16-306. Record in dismissed action.
When an action has been dismissed without prejudice to a future action, the clerk shall make a complete record of the proceedings upon being paid therefor by the party requesting it.
1-16-307. Index to judgments.
(a) Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, the clerk shall keep an index, direct and reverse, of all judgments, by the names of parties alphabetically arranged showing in separate columns the following:
(i) The name of the judgment debtor;
(ii) The name of the judgment creditor;
(iii) The amount of the judgment and the year and term when it was rendered;
(iv) The page of the journal on which it is entered;
(v) The volume and page of the final record;
(vi) The number of the suit;
(vii) The number and time of issue of the execution and satisfaction thereof when satisfaction has been made.
(b) No index shall be made of a judgment by operation of law arising under W.S. 14-2-204.
(c) The clerk shall include in the index required by subsection (a) of this section all judgments, decrees and orders establishing or modifying a child support obligation, provided the index in such case shall show:
(i) The name of the obligor;
(ii) The name of the obligee; and
(iii) The docket number of the suit.
(d) The procedures for compiling and maintaining the judgment index required by subsection (a) of this section may be modified by the court to permit the compilation and maintenance by any manual, mechanical, electronic or other means calculated to ensure the accuracy of the index.
1-16-308. Release of satisfied judgment; requirement.
(a) Any action pending or judgment rendered in the district courts of this state which has been settled or satisfied shall be released or dismissed in writing upon the face of the docket or by written release by the attorney of record or the person in whose favor the judgment was rendered, who shall date and sign the release. If neither the attorney of record nor the judgment creditor can be found in the county, the judgment debtor may pay the amount due upon the judgment to the clerk of court. Upon proper showing to the court that the judgment has been paid in full, the court shall order the judgment released and satisfied.
(b) Subsection (a) of this section does not apply to judgments arising by operation of law under W.S. 14-2-204.
1-16-309. Release of satisfied judgment; liability for failure.
(a) If the attorney of record or other proper person fails to release any action pending or judgment rendered within fifteen (15) days after settlement or satisfaction, the person in whose favor the judgment was rendered is liable for damages sustained.
(b) Subsection (a) of this section does not apply to judgments by operation of law arising under W.S. 14-2-204.
ARTICLE 4 - MODIFICATION OR VACATION AFTER TERM
1-16-401. Authority of court; grounds.
(a) A district court may vacate or modify its own judgment or order after the term at which it was made:
(i) By granting a new trial when the grounds for a new trial could not with reasonable diligence have been discovered before, but are discovered after the original motion for a new trial has been passed upon by the district court;
(ii) By a new trial granted in proceedings against defendants constructively summoned;
(iii) For mistake, neglect or omission of the clerk or irregularity in obtaining a judgment or order;
(iv) For fraud practiced by the successful party in obtaining a judgment or order;
(v) For erroneous proceedings against a minor or person of unsound mind, when the condition of the defendant does not appear in the record nor the error in the proceedings;
(vi) For the death of the parties before judgment in the action;
(vii) For unavoidable casualty or misfortune preventing the party from prosecuting or defending;
(viii) For errors in a judgment shown by a minor within twelve (12) months after arriving at the age of majority;
(ix) For taking judgments upon warrants of attorney for more than was due the plaintiff, when the defendant was not summoned or otherwise legally notified of the time and place of taking the judgment;
(x) When the judgment or order was obtained in whole or in a material part by false testimony on the part of the successful party or any witness in his behalf which ordinary prudence could not have anticipated or guarded against and the guilty party has been convicted.
1-16-402. Opening judgment or order rendered on service by publication.
A party against whom a judgment or order has been rendered without service other than by publication in a newspaper may have the same opened and be allowed to defend within six (6) months after the date of the judgment or order. Before the judgment or order can be opened, the applicant shall give notice to the adverse party of his intended application, file a full answer to the petition, pay all costs if the court requires them to be paid and make it appear to the satisfaction of the court that during the pendency of the action he had no actual notice thereof in time to appear in court and make his defense. Each party may present affidavits.
1-16-403. Bona fide purchasers unaffected.
The title to any property which is the subject of the judgment or order sought to be opened and which in consequence of the judgment or order has passed to a purchaser in good faith, shall not be affected by any proceedings to vacate or modify the judgment, nor shall title to any property sold before judgment under an attachment be affected by the proceedings.
1-16-404. Grounds to vacate tried first.
The court must first try and decide whether to vacate or modify a judgment or order before trying or deciding the validity of the defense or cause of action.
1-16-405. Proceedings prior to vacation and upon modification.
A judgment shall not be vacated until it is decided that there is a valid defense to the action in which the judgment was rendered or if the plaintiff seeks its vacation, that there is a valid cause of action. When a judgment is modified, all liens and securities obtained under it shall be preserved to the modified judgment.
1-16-406. Injunction; suspension of judgment or order.
The party seeking to vacate or modify a judgment or order may obtain an injunction suspending proceedings on the whole or a part thereof when it appears probable by affidavit or by exhibition of the record that the party is entitled to have the judgment or order vacated or modified.
1-16-407. Injunction; suspension of premature judgment.
If the judgment was rendered before the action stood for trial, the injunction may be granted although no valid defense to the action is shown. The court shall make such orders concerning the executions on the judgment as shall give to the defendant the same rights of delay he would have had if the judgment had been rendered at the proper time.
1-16-408. Limitation on time for proceedings.
Proceedings to vacate or modify a judgment or order, for the causes mentioned in W.S. 1-16-401(a)(iv), (v) and (vii) must be commenced within two (2) years after the judgment was rendered or order made, unless the party entitled thereto is a minor or a person of unsound mind, and in cases of such disability, within two (2) years after the removal thereof. Proceedings for the causes mentioned in W.S. 1-16-401(a)(iii) and (vi) shall be commenced within three (3) years, and in W.S. 1-16-401(a)(ix) within two (2) years, after the defendant has notice of the judgment. Proceedings for the causes mentioned in W.S. 1-16-401(a)(x) may be commenced after the guilty party is convicted, if the conviction is within two (2) years from the rendition of the judgment.
1-16-409. Applicability of provisions to supreme court.
The provisions relating to modification or vacation of judgments or orders apply to the supreme court so far as the same are applicable to its judgments or final orders.
ARTICLE 5 - REVIVOR AND NEW PARTIES
1-16-501. Proceeding against parties not summoned and persons whose liability unknown.
When judgment is rendered in this state on a joint instrument, parties to the action who were not summoned and persons whose liability was not known to the plaintiff at the rendition of the judgment may be made parties thereto by action in the same court if they can be summoned. When the judgment is rendered elsewhere, the plaintiff may bring suit upon the instrument against the parties not summoned or persons whose liability was unknown, in any county where any of the parties reside or may be summoned.
1-16-502. Revivor of dormant judgments; generally.
When a judgment, including judgments rendered by a circuit court, a transcript of which has been filed in the district court for execution, becomes dormant, it may be revived in the same manner as prescribed for reviving actions before judgment or by action. When either party to the dormant judgment, his agent or attorney, makes affidavit showing that the adverse party is a nonresident of the state and that the judgment remains unsatisfied in whole or in part and the amount owing thereon, service may be made by publication as in other cases. If sufficient cause is not shown to the contrary, the judgment shall stand revived for the amount which the court finds to be due and unsatisfied thereon. The lien of the judgment for the amount due shall be revived and shall operate from the time of the entry of the conditional order or the filing of the motion.
1-16-503. Revivor of dormant judgments; limitations on time to revive.
(a) No action shall be brought to revive a judgment after ten (10) years after it becomes dormant, unless the party entitled to bring the action was:
(i) A minor or subject to any other legal disability at the time the judgment became dormant, in which case the action may be brought within fifteen (15) years after the disability has ceased; or
(ii) A party in a child support proceeding, in which case the action shall be brought within twenty-one (21) years.
1-16-504. Revivor when parties die after judgment.
If either or both parties die after judgment and before satisfaction thereof, their representatives may be made parties to the judgment in the same manner prescribed for the revival of actions before judgment. The judgment may be rendered and execution awarded against the representatives of the deceased parties.
1-16-505. Partners made parties to judgment.
The members of a partnership against which a judgment has been rendered in its firm name may by action be made parties to the judgment.
1-16-506. Sureties made parties to judgment.
Sureties to the bond of an executor, administrator, guardian or trustee may by action be made parties to a judgment thereon against the principal.
ARTICLE 6 - WYOMING STRUCTURED SETTLEMENT PROTECTION ACT
1-16-601. Short title.
This act shall be known and may be cited as the Wyoming Structured Settlement Protection Act.
(a) As used in this act:
(i) "Annuity issuer" means an insurer that has issued a contract to fund periodic payments under a structured settlement;
(ii) "Dependents" include a payee's spouse and minor children and all other persons for whom the payee is legally obligated to provide support, including alimony;
(iii) "Discounted present value" means the present value of future payments determined by discounting the payments to the present value using the most recently published applicable federal rate for determining the present value of an annuity, as issued by the United States Internal Revenue Service;
(iv) "Gross advance amount" means the sum payable to the payee or for the payee's account as consideration for a transfer of structured settlement payment rights before any reductions for transfer expenses or other deductions to be made from such consideration;
(v) "Independent professional advice" means advice of an attorney, certified public accountant, actuary or other licensed professional adviser;
(vi) "Interested parties" means, with respect to any structured settlement, the payee, any beneficiary irrevocably designated under the annuity contract to receive payments following the payee's death, the annuity issuer, the structured settlement obligor and any other party that has continuing rights or obligations under the structured settlement;
(vii) "Net advance amount" means the gross advance amount less the aggregate amount of the actual and estimated transfer expenses required to be disclosed under W.S. 1-16-603(e);
(viii) "Payee" means an individual who is receiving tax free payments under a structured settlement and proposes to make a transfer of payment rights thereunder;
(ix) "Periodic payments" includes both recurring payments and scheduled future lump sum payments;
(x) "Qualified assignment agreement" means an agreement providing for a qualified assignment within the meaning of 26 U.S.C. 130;
(xi) "Settled claim" means the original tort claim resolved by a structured settlement;
(xii) "Structured settlement" means an arrangement for periodic payment of damages for personal injuries or sickness established by settlement agreement or judgment in resolution of a tort claim;
(xiii) "Structured settlement agreement" means the agreement, judgment, stipulation or release embodying the terms of the structured settlement;
(xiv) "Structured settlement obligor" means, with respect to a structured settlement, the party that has a continuing obligation to make periodic payments to the payee under a structured settlement agreement or a qualified assignment agreement;
(xv) "Structured settlement rights" means rights to receive periodic payments under a structured settlement, whether from the structured settlement obligor or the annuity issuer, where:
(A) The payee is domiciled in, or the domicile or principal place of business of the structured settlement obligor or the annuity issuer is located in, this state;
(B) The structured settlement agreement was approved by a court in this state; or
(C) The structured settlement agreement is expressly governed by the laws of this state.
(xvi) "Terms of the structured settlement" include, with respect to a structured settlement agreement, the terms of the structured settlement agreement, the annuity contract, a qualified assignment agreement and any order or other approval of any court that authorized or approved the structured settlement;
(xvii) "Transfer" means any sale, assignment, pledge, hypothecation or other alienation or encumbrance of structured settlement payment rights made by a payee for consideration, provided that the term "transfer" does not include the creation or perfection of a security agreement in structured settlement payment rights under a blanket security agreement entered into with an insured depository institution, in the absence of any action to redirect the structured settlement payments to the insured depository institution, or an agent or successor in interest thereof, or otherwise to enforce the blanket security interest against the structured settlement payment rights;
(xviii) "Transfer agreement" means the agreement providing for a transfer of structured settlement payment rights;
(xix) "Transfer expenses" means all expenses of a transfer that are required under the transfer agreement to be paid by the payee or deducted from the gross advance amount, including without limitation, court filing fees, attorneys' fees, escrow fees, lien recordation fees, judgment and lien search fees, finders' fees, commissions and other payments to a broker or other intermediary. "Transfer expenses" do not include preexisting obligations of the payee payable for the payee's account from the proceeds of a transfer;
(xx) "Transferee" means a party acquiring or proposing to acquire structured settlement payment rights through a transfer;
(xxi) "This act" means W.S. 1-16-601 through 1-16-607.
1-16-603. Required disclosures to payee.
(a) Not less than three (3) days prior to the date on which a payee signs a transfer agreement, the transferee shall provide to the payee a separate disclosure statement, in bold type no smaller than fourteen (14) points, setting forth:
(i) The amounts and due dates of the structured settlement payments to be transferred;
(ii) The aggregate amount of the payments;
(iii) The discounted present value of the payments to be transferred and the amount of the applicable federal rate used in calculating the discounted present value;
(iv) The gross advance amount;
(v) An itemized listing of all applicable transfer fees, other than attorneys' fees and related disbursements payable in connection with the transferee's application for approval of the transfer and the transferee's best estimate of the amount of any such fees and disbursements;
(vi) The net advance amount;
(vii) The amount of any penalties or liquidated damages payable by the payee in the event of any breach of the transfer agreement by the payee;
(viii) A statement that the payee has the right to cancel the transfer agreement without penalty or further obligation not later than the third business day after the date the agreement is signed by the payee.
1-16-604. Approval of transfers of structured settlement payment rights.
(a) No direct or indirect transfer of structured settlement payment rights shall be effective and no structured settlement obligor or annuity issuer shall be required to make any payment directly or indirectly to any transferee of structured settlement payment rights unless the transfer has been approved in advance in a final court order based on express findings by the court that:
(i) The transfer is in the best interest of the payee, taking into account the welfare and support of the payee's dependents;
(ii) The payee has been advised in writing by the transferee to seek independent professional advice regarding the transfer and has either received such advice or knowingly waived such advice in writing; and
(iii) The transfer does not contravene any applicable statute or the order of any court or other government authority.
1-16-605. Effects of transfer of structured settlement payment rights.
(a) Following a transfer of structured settlement payment rights under this act:
(i) The structured settlement obligor and the annuity issuer shall, as to all parties except the transferee, be discharged and released from any and all liability for the transferred payments;
(ii) The transferee shall be liable to the structured settlement obligor and the annuity issuer:
(A) If the transfer contravenes the terms of the structured settlement, for any taxes incurred by such parties as a consequence of the transfer; and
(B) For any other liabilities or costs, including reasonable costs and attorneys' fees arising from compliance by such parties with the order of the court or arising as a consequence of the transferee's failure to comply with this act.
(iii) Neither the annuity issuer nor the structured settlement obligor may be required to divide any periodic payment between the payee and any transferee or assignee or between two (2) or more transferees or assignees; and
(iv) Any further transfer of structured settlement payment rights by the payee may be made only after compliance with all requirements of this act.
1-16-606. Procedure for approval of transfers.
(a) An application under this act for approval of a transfer of structured settlement payment rights shall be made by the transferee and may be brought in the Wyoming district court that approved the structured settlement payment rights, or the Wyoming district court in the county where the payee resides without regard to where the structured settlement payment rights may have accrued.
(b) Not less than twenty (20) days prior to the scheduled hearing on an application for approval of a transfer of structured settlement payment rights under W.S. 1-16-604, the transferee shall file with the court and serve all interested parties a notice of the proposed transfer and application for its authorization, including with the notice:
(i) A copy of the transferee's application for transfer;
(ii) A copy of the transfer agreement;
(iii) A copy of the disclosure statement required under W.S. 1-16-603;
(iv) A listing of each of the payee's dependents, together with each dependent's age and date of birth;
(v) Notification that any interested party may support, oppose or otherwise respond to the transferee's application, either in person or by counsel, by submitting written comments to the court or by participating in the hearing; and
(vi) Notification of the time and place of the hearing and notification of the manner in which and the time by which written responses to the application shall be filed, which time shall be not less than fifteen (15) days after service of the transferee's notice, in order to be considered by the court.
1-16-607. General provisions; construction.
(a) The provisions of this act may not be waived by any payee.
(b) Any transfer agreement entered into on or after July 1, 2006 by a payee who resides in this state shall provide that disputes under the transfer agreement, including any claim that the payee has breached the agreement, shall be determined in and under the laws of this state. No transfer agreement shall authorize the transferee or any other party to confess judgment or consent to entry of judgment against the payee.
(c) No transfer of structured settlement payment rights shall extend to any payments that are life-contingent unless, prior to the date on which the payee signs the transfer agreement, the transferee has established and has agreed to maintain procedures reasonably satisfactory to the annuity issuer and the structured settlement obligor for:
(i) Periodically confirming the payee's survival; and
(ii) Giving the annuity issuer and the structured settlement obligor prompt written notice in the event of the payee's death.
(d) No payee who proposes to make a transfer of structured settlement payment rights shall incur any penalty, forfeit any application fee or other payment, or otherwise incur any liability to the proposed transferee or any assignee based on any failure of the transfer to satisfy the requirements of this act.
(e) Nothing contained in this act shall be construed to authorize any transfer of structured settlement payment rights in contravention of any law or to imply that any transfer under a transfer agreement entered into prior to July 1, 2006 is valid or invalid.
(f) Compliance with the requirements of W.S. 1-16-603 and fulfillment of the conditions set forth in W.S. 1-16-604 shall be solely the responsibility of the transferee in any transfer of structured settlement payment rights, and neither the structured settlement obligor nor the annuity issuer shall bear any responsibility for, or any liability arising from, noncompliance with the requirements of W.S. 1-16-603 or failure to fulfill the conditions set forth in W.S. 1-16-604.